• Research Article

    A Study on the Validity of the Receiving Points in the Heavy Weight Floor Impact Sound at Box Type Apartment House

    박스형 공동주택 거실에서 중량바닥충격음 수음점 위치에 대한 적정성 연구

    Oh, Yang-Ki, Joo, Mun-Ki

    오양기, 주문기

    In this paper, the validity of the receiving points in the heavy weight floor impact sound was investigated by measuring a room ... + READ MORE
    In this paper, the validity of the receiving points in the heavy weight floor impact sound was investigated by measuring a room mode. Living rooms of different sizes were analyzed by grid measurement. As a result, the sound pressure level was the lowest in the 80 Hz band, which is the one half of the receiving room. It was shown that the fixed microphone position was likely to cause different result by the room mode. The result was the same according to the size of the receiving room. As shown in ISO 16283-2, it was expected that the 4 points of the receiving room would be avoided center points, corners, and nearby walls. Also, the point at which receiving point on the same plane is symmetrical was shown to be avoided. Through this measurements, the minimum guidelines for the receiving points were proposed when measuring the heavy weight impact sound. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    A Study on the Analysis of Changing Building Energy Demand and Countermeasures according to the Climate in the Future

    미래 기후에 의한 레퍼런스 건축물의 에너지 요구량 변화 분석과 대응 방안에 대한 연구

    Lee, Tae-Kyu, Kim, Jeong-Uk

    이태규, 김정욱

    In this study, we analyzed changes in building energy according to IPCC climate change scenarios and suggested countermeasures. The heating energy of ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we analyzed changes in building energy according to IPCC climate change scenarios and suggested countermeasures. The heating energy of buildings tended to decrease due to the increase in outside temperature. On the other hand, both cooling energy and latent heat energy increased rapidly. In order to cope with this, external air conditioner reinforcement and enthalpy control were applied to buildings and solar power generation. Heating energy was further reduced and cooling energy was reduced by up to 32%. When the air cooling system with enthalpy control was introduced, the cooling energy and latent heat energy were reduced at the same time, and the average saving rate was over 25%. In the case of photovoltaic power generation, it is not affected by the climate change scenario, but it is thought to be accompanied by research on weather change. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Evaluations of Dynamic Characteristics and Floor Vibration Serviceability for Stacked Modular House

    라멘형 적층식 모듈러 주택의 바닥진동 특성 파악 및 바닥진동 사용성 평가

    Lee, Eun-Jin, Lee, Min-Jung, Hyoun, Chang-Kook

    이은진, 이민정, 현창국

    This study aimed to evaluate the floor vibration serviceability and find out the features of floor vibration in the stacked steel modular ... + READ MORE
    This study aimed to evaluate the floor vibration serviceability and find out the features of floor vibration in the stacked steel modular house. For the purpose the survey on occupant’s recognition, vibration measurement and modal analysis were conducted. The survey showed that some residents could perceive the floor vibration and they suspected vehicle, washing machine, elevator and unknown causes as vibration sources. The vehicle turned out to mainly cause floor vibration annoying occupants. Several vehicle induced vertical floor vibrations exceeded the base curve of ISO standard. Nevertheless, most measured vibration level satisfied ISO curve for residence. From modal analysis it was found out that the floor of stacked steel modular house behaved with 4-mode frequencies principally. The natural frequencies of fleer are 6.8, 12.8, 20.3, and 25.2Hz. First two natural frequencies affect vehicle induced floor vibration, otherwise, the vertical vibrations caused washing machine and elevator associated with 3rd and 4th mode. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    An Evaluation on the Operation Performance and Reduced Efficiency of Thermal Storage System via BEMS Data

    BEMS 데이터를 활용한 축열 시스템의 운전 성능 및 효율 저하 평가에 관한 연구

    Park, Seong-Cheol, Kim, Yu-Jin, Kim, Hwan-Yong, Song, Young-Hak

    박성철, 김유진, 김환용, 송영학

    This study summarized and analyzed the operation status of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) in buildings using the data acquired by ... + READ MORE
    This study summarized and analyzed the operation status of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) in buildings using the data acquired by a building energy management system (BEMS) and identified the operation performance. The target building was a library where energy efficiency grade, passive buildings, and passive and active elements were applied such as Grade 5 zero energy building (ZEB). The main components of the HVAC system was composed of thermal storage tank system utilizing the mid-night electric power and geothermal heat pump. The analysis results verified that the mean Coefficient of Performances (COP) of the heat pump device and the system during heating operation were 3.7 and 3.2, which were decreased in operating efficiency by -2.9% and -4.5%, and 4.5 and 3.4 during cooling operation, which were improved in operating efficiency by 5.7% and -5.0%. In the middle of the process that checked the loss of heat storage during cooling operation, the design errors occurred in the pipe system in the thermal storage tank were verified. The temperature stratification inside the thermal storage system was not made because the 3-way valve was not implemented in the sections of the heat pump and thermal storage tank. The comparison results based on the assumption of normal design showed that the heat storage loss for 22 days in a month of July in 2019 was 31,228 kWh. Considering the daily loss and system COP, the entire power loss of heat storage in July was 9,281 kWh, which incurred additional cost of KRW 514,161 accordingly. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Noise Level and Measurement Method for Elevator in Apartment Houses

    우리나라 공동주택 승강기 소음 현황 및 현행 측정 방법

    Kang, Min-Woo, Jang, Yu-Kyeong, Oh, Yang-Ki

    강민우, 장유경, 오양기

    The noise generated by elevators in Korean apartments houses is a very concerning factor to residents and disturbs their quiet living environment ... + READ MORE
    The noise generated by elevators in Korean apartments houses is a very concerning factor to residents and disturbs their quiet living environment. However, there are currently no regulations or laws on elevator noise, and even measurement and evaluation methods are not clear. The elevator noise measurement method is specified in [KS F ISO 16032 Measurement of sound level from building equipment]. However, this standard is quoted as it is for conformity with international standards, so it is necessary to examine whether it is applicable to elevator noise measurement in apartments in Korea. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the current state of apartment houses elevator noise in Korea and analyze the data to identify problems with the current standard. The operating conditions suggested by the current standard were very difficult for the reproducibility of the experiment and the satisfaction of the experimental conditions. The main issue is that it was verified as not suitable for the noise measurement of apartment houses elevators in Korea. Also, in terms of verifying the validity of the measurement frequency band, understanding elevator noise characteristics and correlation analysis confirmed that the current measurement frequency band is not a frequency band that can measure and evaluate the noise of apartment houses elevators in Korea. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    A Study on Annual Cooling Energy Consumption Cut-off with Cooling Tower Control Change

    건물의 냉각탑 제어 변경에 따른 연간 냉방 에너지 사용량 절감에 관한 연구

    Ha, Ju-Wan, Park, Kyung-Soon, Kim, Hwan-Yong, Song, Young-Hak

    하주완, 박경순, 김환용, 송영학

    The purpose of this study is to find out the efficiency improvement of the cooling system and cut-off of cooling energy consumption ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study is to find out the efficiency improvement of the cooling system and cut-off of cooling energy consumption by changing the design method of the cooling tower system applied in Korea. The quantitative analysis was carried out on the cooling energy consumption saved by changing the Korea Standard design temperature of cooling tower system through EnergyPlus simulation. As a result of the simulation, when the condenser water temperature difference from the existing cooling tower design standard is 5K to 7K, the annual cooling energy consumption is reduced by 27,084 kWh, approximately 7.6%. Also, additionally, when the condenser water leaving temperature form the existing cooling tower design standard is 32°C to 23.9°C according to ASHRAE 90.1, the annual cooling energy consumption was reduced by 59.419 kWh, and approximately 16.7%. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Analysis of GHG Reduction in Apartment Buildings by 2030 according to Various Prediction Scenarios

    예측 시나리오에 따른 2030년 공동주택 온실가스 감축량 분석

    Lee, Seung-Min, Kim, Eui-Jong

    이승민, 김의종

    The zero energy building (ZEB) certification system was implemented to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) in Korea. However, residential buildings are somewhat excluded ... + READ MORE
    The zero energy building (ZEB) certification system was implemented to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) in Korea. However, residential buildings are somewhat excluded in the ZEB roadmap by 2030. In particular, new apartment buildings are still contributing to the reduction of GHG. In this work, the GHG reduction potential of the new apartment houses was studied. GHG emissions analyses were conducted using ECO2, which is an energy analysis program used in various rating systems in Korea. Baseline emissions were estimated based on 2017, as reflected in the 2030 GHG roadmap revision. The analysis scenarios were classified into three types according to policies and renewable installation rates for public buildings. As a result, the GHG reduction potential was 5.51% in scenario I, 6.71% in scenario II, and 9.42% in scenario III. This means that the maximum reduction by the entire new buildings is less than 30% considering the ratio of the new apartment house to total new construction. It is required to strengthen energy policies applicable for existing buildings and neighboring area to fulfill the target GHG reduction in the building sector. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Measurement of Indoor CO2 Concentration According to the Level of Building Airtightness

    건물 기밀성능에 따른 실내 이산화탄소 농도 변화 측정

    Park, Seung-Hoon, Lee, Dong-Seok, Ji, Kyung-Hwan, Jang, Won-Seok, Jo, Jae-Hun, Kim, Eui-Jong

    박승훈, 이동석, 지경환, 장원석, 조재훈, 김의종

    Keeping indoor air quality (IAQ) within allowable health ranges is one of the important issues in Korean society. Since CO2 is generated ... + READ MORE
    Keeping indoor air quality (IAQ) within allowable health ranges is one of the important issues in Korean society. Since CO2 is generated by occupants’ breathing, adequate ventilation must be ensured particularly for a room with high occupancy density. Effective ventilation rates for rooms may be variable according to the level of building airtightness. This study aims to measure the indoor CO2 concentration variation for a room with different levels of building airtightness. A test classroom was sealed to make distinct CO2 levels compared to the unsealed case, and measurements were achieved for various operation cases. Results showed that measured CO2 levels were different between the two cases (normal and sealed) when the ventilator was switched-off, but they were more similar for mechanically ventilated cases. This measurement result seemed to follow the conventional assumption that infiltration is negligible for mechanically ventilated rooms, but further studies are required as a slight difference in CO2 concentration was still found. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    A Study on the Effects of Energy Savings from the Sequential Controls of Absorption Chiller-heaters for Public Office Buildings in Summer

    공공기관 사무소 건물의 흡수식 냉온수기 대수제어에 따른 하절기 에너지절감 효과에 관한 연구

    Kim, Sang-Jun, Song, Su-Won

    김상준, 송수원

    Absorption chiller-heaters have widely been used for cooling and heating in public buildings, due to government energy policy in Korea since 1980s ... + READ MORE
    Absorption chiller-heaters have widely been used for cooling and heating in public buildings, due to government energy policy in Korea since 1980s. However, the sequence of operations for such absorption chiller-heaters with different capacity and efficiency has not been sufficiently studied under actual operational conditions. This study analyzed the effects of energy savings from the sequential controls of absorption chiller-heaters for a public office building using calibrated energy simulation with measured data in summer. As a result, it is found that the proposed sequential operations with a prorate load control of three absorption chiller-heaters is expected to save cooling energy (e.g., gas consumption) about 17% for the case-study building. Therefore, it is recommended that the sequential operations of absorption chiller-heaters should be coupled with equipment efficiency and capacity to effectively improve overall operational efficiency and save energy. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Residential Energy Use Features with Respect to Location, Housing Type, Gross Area and Construction Year from Household Energy Standing Survey

    가구에너지상설표본조사 결과를 활용한 지역, 주거유형, 전용면적, 준공년도별 주거에너지 소비특성 분석

    Lee, Na-Hyeon, Kim, Hye-Jin, Seo, Dong-Hyun

    이나현, 김혜진, 서동현

    KEEI (Korea Energy Economy Institute) has implemented annual HESS (Home Energy Standing Survey) for publishing national statistics on residential building energy consumption ... + READ MORE
    KEEI (Korea Energy Economy Institute) has implemented annual HESS (Home Energy Standing Survey) for publishing national statistics on residential building energy consumption since 2011. The survey is comprised with six major categories with 149 detail questions such as building location, construction year, gross area, type and operation hours of appliances, monthly fuels and electricity consumption, etc. In spite of the detail survey, the annual report on the survey from KEEI is not enough to provide various stakeholder with detail information. In this research, detailed energy consumption analysis are implemented with R-script and micro data from KESIS (Korea Energy Statistical Information System). The units of all energy sources are converted into kWh to be compared with the Building Energy Efficiency Rating System. All energy consumption data are normalized with gross area of each household to compared the difference with respect to location, housing type, gross area, and construction year. The analysis results show that significant difference of energy consumption with respect to gross area and construction year. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    A Basic Study on Improving Systems Related to Smart Homes in Korea

    국내 스마트 홈 관련 제도 개선방향 설정을 위한 기초 연구

    Hwang, Eun-Kyoung, Lee, Jong-Ho, Kim, Soo-Am, Yang, Hyun-Jung

    황은경, 이종호, 김수암, 양현정

    Recently, various certification and facility standards related to smart homes are being implemented by government departments to build a foundation for smart ... + READ MORE
    Recently, various certification and facility standards related to smart homes are being implemented by government departments to build a foundation for smart home infrastructure and provide residential services to meet the various needs of residents in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. These certifications and standards should complement each other because they are simultaneously applied to a single, completed building. However, after analyzing 5 current systems related to smart homes, we found problems such as confusing evaluation item names, different standards for similar evaluation items, citation of other certification systems, different evaluation item characteristics, and regulations on certification validity periods. Based on this, we propose establishing an integrated certification system and standards for smart homes, setting certification expiration dates and establishing re-certification evaluation systems to maintain the performance of smart homes, and plans to activate and induce smart homes to improve smart home systems. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    The Scale Survey by Influencing Factors for Improvement of Long-life Housing Certification Evaluation Items

    장수명 주택 인증제도 평가항목 개선을 위한 영향요인별 척도 조사

    Kim, Eun-Young, Hwang, Eun-Kyoung

    김은영, 황은경

    The life time of a house is affected by physical and social factors. In December 2014, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and ... + READ MORE
    The life time of a house is affected by physical and social factors. In December 2014, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport established the standard for building and certification of long-life housing. However, as of September 2019, 99.81% of the total 647 cases received the general grade, except for one good grade. In order to expand the supply of long-life housing, it is necessary to improve the system along with the development of technology. The purpose of this study is to prepare the evidence for improvement of the certification system through the scale survey of the impact factors for each certification item. A survey of the importance of each item was conducted through expert survey. The survey targets long-term housing experts. It consists of 47 persons including long-life housing researchers, construction companies, and design firms. After examining the importance of each item, the level of technology development, and the construction cost, the conclusions were drawn on the measures by evaluation items. First, durability: The items to be maintained and strengthened are the design reference strength (fck) of the cover thickness and the quality of concrete. The items to be lowered are slump, unit bonding mass, water binder ratio, air volume, and chloride content among concrete qualities. Second, variability: The items to be maintained and strengthened are the existing bearing wall length and length ratio, the total drywall ratio inside the household, and the variable ease construction method. The downward revisions were made to the rise of the floor and the double bottom. Third, maintainability: maintenance enhancement items are designed to ensure the independence of common piping and dedicated facility space, and to easily replace and repair pipe wiring, and to be assembled. Downgrading consideration items include dry ondol, 20% of PS area of ​​main piping, and separate installation of spare piping space. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Research on Comparison and Analysis of Online Occupant Satisfaction Survey System focusing on Post-Occupancy Evaluation

    거주자 만족도 온라인 조사 시스템 비교 분석 및 시사점

    Lee, Jong-Won, Kim, Deuk-Woo, Lee, Seung-Eon

    이종원, 김덕우, 이승언

    Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is an important value judgment that improves the quality of building performance. Previous studies have generally conducted field surveys ... + READ MORE
    Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is an important value judgment that improves the quality of building performance. Previous studies have generally conducted field surveys and individual interviews by the survey investigator in person. So there is a limit in time and cost and most of the POEs are one-off studies in the limited buildings. In order to overcome above limitations, diverse online occupant satisfaction survey systems have been developed with IEQ questionnaire design and data accumulation for benchmark analysis over the world. In this study, the most widely online occupant satisfaction survey systems are compared and analyzed: (1) Occupant Survey Toolkit of Center for the Built Environment (CBE) at UC Berkeley of the U.S., (2) Building Use Studies (BUS) methodology of the United Kingdom, (3) Building Occupants Survey System Australia (BOSSA) system of Australia. Based on the results of each item`s comparative analysis, this study suggests a direction how to develop the Korean online occupant satisfaction survey system. The proposed suggestion will be useful to systematize and build a database of occupant satisfaction survey. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    An Analysis on the Effect of Mold Sterilization in Apartment Using 405 nm Visible Light LED

    405 nm 가시광선 LED를 이용한 공동주택 내 곰팡이 살균효과에 대한 분석

    Kim, Ji-Hi, Bang, Jong-Il, Choi, An-Seop, Sung, Min-Ki

    김지희, 방종일, 최안섭, 성민기

    Recent increase of interest on indoor air quality has brought attention to indoor pollutant control. In particular, pollutant damage in residential area ... + READ MORE
    Recent increase of interest on indoor air quality has brought attention to indoor pollutant control. In particular, pollutant damage in residential area such as apartments can be critical to human health since occupational time in apartment is relevantly long. Studies related to pollutant control in apartments are being conducted. One of the pollutant control method that can be applied to apartment is using Ultra Violet (UV). However, direct exposure to UV can accelerate skin aging and excessive exposure to UV can cause skin cancer. In this study, 405 nm LED which is visible ray and has slight portion of UV wave length, was used to sterilize mold in apartment. The 405 nm LED module was operated for 15, 30, and 45 minutes at a distance of 5 cm on the molded wall. In addition, 405 nm LEDs were operated directly for 60 minutes on molded PDA plates to check the sterilization effect. Result showed that as irradiation time increased sterilization rate also increased which indicates that enough irradiation of 405 nm LED in apartment can sterilize mold and can be innocuous method for controlling pollutant. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Utilizing Public Data of Building Energy for Fault Detection and Diagnostic Services in Smart City

    스마트시티 고장발견진단 서비스 개발을 위한 건물에너지 공공데이터 활용방안 기초 연구

    Cho, Hyung-Min, Park, Chang-Young, Kim, Jin-Ho, Jang, Hyang-In

    조형민, 박창영, 김진호, 장향인

    Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) is an effective method to manage building energy use by correcting the wrong operation or malfunction. However ... + READ MORE
    Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) is an effective method to manage building energy use by correcting the wrong operation or malfunction. However, there are still limitations in general adoption of FDD due to the technical shortage and high cost. Utilizing the public data in the building energy management is suggested as a way to overcome these limitations in this study. The current status of public data management was investigated and then a framework for developing the FDD service using public data was suggested. In addition, setting the data points with priorities was proposed for the affordable and effective establishment of FDD. To spread the FDD to general types of buildings, the more cost-effective services are needed, and the proposed framework that utilizing the public data of building energy will be a way to bridge the technical and economic gaps. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Economic Analysis of Solar Energy System in Factory Buildings in National Industrial Complexes

    국가 산업단지별 공장건축물의 태양에너지시스템 설치에 따른 경제성 분석

    Dai Lucheng, Kim, Yun-Ho, Yoon, Myung-Ju, Hwang, Jung-Ha

    다에루청, 김윤호, 윤명주, 황정하

    The Korean government recently announced “Renewable Energy 3020 Policy” in order to increase the proportion of renewable energy generation to as much ... + READ MORE
    The Korean government recently announced “Renewable Energy 3020 Policy” in order to increase the proportion of renewable energy generation to as much as 20% of total. To that end, the Korea Energy Agency will implement the photovoltaic system dissemination project for the roofs and parking lots of industrial complexes, thus contributing to achieving the goal of the government policy. This study applied conventional PV and recently developed L-PVTs systems to some industrial complexes and conducted energy analyses using the TRNSYS 18 simulation software package to draw energy production and economic effect of each installed system. The study method is as follows: First, the distribution and status of the national industrial parks were investigated. Second, a photovoltaic weather resource map was employed to investigate and compare the resources in the regions with industrial clusters. Third, industrial parks were selected, and their energy output was calculated by using the TRNSYS18 program and applying the PV and L-PVTs systems. Fourth, economic return was evaluated by calculating the payback period of each system. Supplying and installing L-PVTs in national industrial complexes is expected to increase the electric energy production by approximately 20% compared with PV installations. Furthermore, the L-PVTs also show excellent economic efficiency because the payback period of L-PVTs is 45% shorter than that of PV depending on the utilization method when electricity is produced using the produced thermal energy in conjunction with a small cogeneration system having an efficiency of approximately 45%. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
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